Proceedings of the 5th International Lion-tailed Macaque Symposium:
11th to 13th January 1999, Mysuru (Mysore), Karnataka, India
The Fifth International Symposium on lion-tailed macaque was held on January 11-13, 1999 at the University of Mysore, Mysore, India. The main theme of the Symposium was to initiate issue based collaborative research between scientists working on free-ranging and captive lion-tailed macaques. Besides scientists from USA, Germany, Austria and Australia, a large number of researchers, wildlife officials and zoo managers from India participated in the Symposium.
Thanks are due to the University of Mysore, Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, the Forest Departments of the Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and various scientists for their cooperation and involvement in this endeavor. Thanks are also due to the German Primate Center for providing two full issues of primate Report for the publication of this material.
5th International Lion-tailed Macaque Symposium
Articles were published in PRIMATE REPORT
Status and conservation of lion-tailed macaque and other arboreal mammals in tropical rain forests of Sringeri Forest Range, Western Ghats, Karnataka, India.
Singh, M., Kumara, H. N., Kumar, M. A., Sharma, A. K. and DeFalco, K.
ABSTRACT: The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), an endangered primate species, was surveyed in the tropical rainforests of Sringeri in the state of Karnataka, south India. A total of 10 groups and a solitary adult male were found in approximately 90 square kilometers of rainforest. The other sympatric arboreal mammals found included common langurs, bonnet macaques and Malabar giant squirrels. The lion-tailed macaques are sympatric with other primates and giant squirrels in the undisturbed core areas. More towards the human habitations and disturbed areas, the lion-tailed macaques are absent and the forest is occupied by commensal species. The habitat features and the population structure indicate that this region is a potential area for maintaining a biologically viable population of lion-tailed macaques. However, a number of factors such as extraction of fuel wood, collection of minor forest produce, grazing by domestic livestock and plantation of commercial tree species are causing a serious threat to the habitat. The effect of habitat degradation on arboreal wildlife is discussed and the steps are suggested to minimize the effect of human disturbance on habitat.
Habitat utilization of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in Silent Valley National Park, Kerala India.
Ramachandran, K. K. and Joseph, G. K.
ABSTRACT: Ecology and habitat utilization of lion-tailed macaque have been studied for a period of three years from 1993 to 1996 in the rainforest ecosystem of Silent Valley National Park. Fourteen distinct troops were identified having a total of 275 individuals. Distribution of the troops and the extent of their habitat were studied in the Park and adjacent areas. Six tree associations were identified in the wet evergreen forests of the National Park. The major food species of lion-tailed macaque and the differential utilization of certain patches in the undisturbed evergreen forests are discussed. Regarding the conservation measures, the adjoining regeneration areas deserve special attention as it can form a potential lion-tailed macaque habitat.
Phyto-ecology of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) habitats in Karnataka, India: floristic structure and density of food trees.
Krishnamani, R. and Kumar, A.
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the phyto-ecology, floristic diversity and density of food-trees in the habitats of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), in Karnataka State of peninsular India. Woody trees and lianas were sampled from three belt transects (250mx10m) in each of the five study areas. A total of 190 woody plant species were identified from these plots, of which 74 (38.9 \%) were food-trees of the lion-tailed macaque. The relative density of these species was high (57.1 \%) indicating that the habitat in Karnataka can probably support a good population of lion-tailed macaque. However, this analysis does not take into account the relative importance of the plant species in the diet. Nearly 27 \% of the food-trees of the lion-tailed macaques were exploited as non-timber forest products in the study area.
Faunal component in the diet of lion-tailed macaque.
Kumara, H. N., Singh, M. E., Sharma, A. K., Singh, M. R. and Kumar, M. A.
ABSTRACT: The paper reports the information on the faunal component in the diet of wild lion-tailed macaques. The faunal component accounts for about 19 percent of the total diet. There is more intake of faunal items during the dry months from December to May when fruit availability is low, as compared to the wet months from June to November. The faunal intake at different times of the day and by different age-sex classes does not differ. Invertebrates constitute the largest portion of the faunal diet. The smaller animals are captured and eaten by all age-sex classes, whereas the larger vertebrates are usually caught and eaten by adult animals, especially males. The method of capturing the prey and the parts of the body eaten are reported.
Impacts of the habitat fragmentation on time budget and feeding ecology of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in rain forest fragments of Anamalai Hills, south India.
Umapathy, G. and Kumar, A.
ABSTRACT: We examine the changes in the time budget and feeding ecology of the lion-tailed macaque with reference to area and vegetation status of their habitat fragments. Data was collected from one group each in four rain forest fragments for one year (January, 1995 to December, 1995) in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, south India. Although there were considerable differences in fragment area and levels of degradation, there were no consistent differences in the time budget of the species. The major difference was a reduction in time spent in feeding and increased ranging in the small and more degraded fragments during the first wet season. The major impact on feeding ecology of the species was a reduction in the number of plant species used per day, and a reduction in the use of lianas in the smaller and disturbed fragments. There was also a reduction in the proportion of invertebrates in the diet in the small fragments in the dry and second wet seasons, and a reduction in the proportion of fruits and seeds in the dry season. The lack of an overall difference in the time budget of the species may be because 1) reduction of food abundance due to fragmentation was compensated by changes in the vegetation; 2) the vegetation that immediately surrounded the fragments was of considerable food value to the species; and, 3) some keystone species such as Ficus spp. and Cullenia exarillata have been left behind in fragments. Productivity of remaining trees due to increased penetration of solar radiation may also increase food abundance. The decline in the proportion of invertebrates in the diet could be a reason for the reduction in the proportion of immatures in the population in the small and degraded fragments.
Niche separation in sympatric lion-tailed macaque and Nilgiri langur.
Singh, M. R., Singh, M. E., Kumar, M. A., Kumara, H. N., Sharma, A. K. and Sushma, H. S.
ABSTRACT: The study was carried out on one group each of lion-tailed macaques and Nilgiri langurs living as sympatric groups in a rainforest in Anaimalai Hills, Western Ghats, south India. Whereas the lion-tailed macaques were found to be frugivorous/insectivorous, the Nilgiri langurs were primarily folivorous. Fruit was the only shared component in the diet of the two species. The lion-tailed macaques occupied a higher substratum than the Nilgiri langurs not only for their routine activities, but also for overall feeding and fruit feeding. The presence of lion-tailed macaques resulted in further lowering the feeding substratum and increased passivity in Nilgiri langurs. Food specialization and vertical stratification differentiate the niches of these two sympatric species.
Male Migration in Lion-Tailed Macaques.
Kumar, M. A.., Singh, M., Kumara, H. N., Sharma, A. K. and Bertsch, C.
Adult lion-tailed macaque males probably often migrate. Previous observations indicate the presence of solitary adult males in the forest and also the number of adult males in a group varying in repeated counts. This paper reports one fully documented case of a solitary male joining the study group. The resident male was first chased out and then allowed to reenter the group. One female conceived and delivered during the presence of migratory male. Almost all matings with that female were made by the migratory male. The other adult females in the group preferred the migratory male to the resident male in all social interactions including sexual present, approach, proximity, and grooming. The presence of two adult males resulted in a significant reduction in the frequency of social interactions among group members. The fact that the group females easily accepted the migratory male has significant implications for the management of this species inhabiting forest fragments.
Mounting pattern in the lion-tailed macaque: an analysis based on inter-mount intervals.
ABSTRACT: The lion-tailed macaque has been classified by various authors as a multiple mount ejaculator, but without data from wild populations. The mounting pattern in this species was analysed using data from a wild group in the Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, in Tamil Nadu State. Since there were no external indicators of ejaculation, the distribution of intervals between mounting was compared with distributions expected from four different models: random single mounts, clustered single mounts, random multiple mounts and clustered multiple mounts. Data on mounting intervals (n=297) were collected using focal animal sampling of single adult male and seven females, when the latter were in estrous. Clustered multiple mounts gave the best fit for the data with intervals < 300 seconds as intra-multiple mount intervals, 301-1680 seconds as inter-multiple mount but within cluster intervals, and >1680 as between cluster intervals. However, as much as 54 \% of the mounts occurred as single mounts with intervals > 300 seconds. It is thus likely that the lion-tailed macaque shows both single and multiple mount ejaculations, the pattern probably varying with the sexual status of the female.
Measurement of faecal steroid metabolites in the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus): a reliable tool for assessing female ovarian function.
M. Heistermann, M., Uhrigshardt, J., Husung, A., Kaumanns, W. and Hodges, J. K.
ABSTRACT: The overall aim of the study was to establish reliable methods for faecal hormone analysis in the lion-tailed macacque and to apply these to provide initial information on ovarian cycle characteristics in breeding and non-breeding females of the EEP population. Regular faecal samples were collected over periods of 3-6 months from a total of 10 females (4-26 years) living in four groups. Following methonolic extraction of lyophylised faecal powder, samples were analysed for immunoreactive oestradiol (E2) and 5a-pregnane-3a-ol-20-one (5-P-3OH) using enzymeimmunoassay procedures. In 6 of the 10 study females, both hormones followed a cyclic pattern from which a cycle length of 32.2 3.0 days, comprising a follicular phase of 16.0 3.2 days and a luteal phase of 16.2 2.0 days was deduced. In the other females, the hormone patterns indicated clear signs of cycle irregularities, including extended follicular phases (25 - >70 days), shortened luteal phases (<7 days) and/or irregular hormone levels. These patterns of cycle irregularities were exclusively seen in the older study animals, e.g. the females beyond 20 years of age. Taken together, the data indicate that faecal hormone analysis is a practical and valuable diagnostic tool for providing reliable information on ovarian function in the lion-tailed macaque. As such it can be used for determining causes of breeding problems in captive animals as well as monitoring reproductive physiology in free-ranging females in the wild.
A long term decline in swelling of the sexual skin in captive lion-tailed macaques.
Harvey, N. C. and Lindburg, D. G.
ABSTRACT: The paper reports the data on sexual swelling by lion-tailed macaque females in a captive group before and after the alpha male was vasectomized. The females showed a stepwise decrease in swelling duration in each of the four years following vasectomy of the breeding male. Further, the significant reduction in swelling duration was observed only in stage 1 (beginning of swelling) and stage 3 (peak of swelling). As far as the behavior of the male was concerned, there was a significant decrease in copulation frequency following vasectomy. However, the decrease was observed only during the first two stages of female swelling with no change in the proportion of copulation days during the peak of female swelling.
A century of involvement with lion-tailed macaques in North America.
Lindburg, D. G.
ABSTRACT: In North America, the first wild-caught lion-tailed macaque arrived at Philadelphia Zoo in 1899. The species was maintained solely for entertainment during the first era between 1899 and 1965. Following the reports about habitat destruction and drastic decline in natural populations of the species in India, the North American zoos imposed a volunatry ban on imports and laid more emphasis on captive breeding, management and research. The period between 1966 and 1982 may be called era of opportunistic breeding with emphasis on entertainment, breed and conserve. The next era of scientific management and research from 1983 to present is marked by an attention on entertainment, breed and conserve, genetic management and reproductive biology. Since 1990, an added emphasis has been on hedge breeding with the purpose to limit breeding and yet to retain a biologically viable captive population of lion-tailed macaques in North America. The paper also presents a summary of major results of research on captive lion-tailed macaques in North America and the issues that remain to be addressed.
The European lion-tailed macaque population: an overview.
Kaumanns, W., Schwitzer, C., Schmidt, P., Husung, A. and Knogge, C.
ABSTRACT: The development of the European population of lion-tailed macaques within the period from 1989 to 1999 is described. Although the population within the European breeding program (EEP) more than doubled in size during the ten years, there are still serious problems. The number of births per year is low in relation to the number of adult females, and infant mortality is high. Large differences in reproductive out-put between the females point to a possible ongoing selection within the population. The paper furthermore focuses on two aspects which especially deserve attention when developing an appropriate management plan for the species in captivity: 1.) The European population of the species is being kept under conditions which do not allow to realise the species-specific demographic and social patterns, and 2.) the wide distribution of behavioural disturbances might indicate that many individuals have difficulties in coping with their living conditions. Recent research in lion-tailed macaques lead to the assumption that the demo-graphic and social structures, as available under the reduced living conditions of many captive groups, are not fully compatible with the species-specific mating system. An integrated approach covering field studies and research on captive groups would help to gain insight into these problems. It is emphasised that the captive population of lion-tailed macaques should be used more consequently as a model for an extremely fragmented population which provides quasi-experimental and experimental conditions that would be difficult to establish in the field.
Experimental inter-group encounters in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus).
Zinner, D., Hindahl, J. and Kaumanns, W.
ABSTRACT: We studied the behavior of two small one male-groups of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) during experimental intergroup encounters. Each group was confronted 10 times with the members of the other group for 30 minutes. Control observations under the same conditions in the absence of the second group were conducted. We compared the male and female behavior during encounters and in control situations. Males and females participated actively in the encounters. Members of the larger group showed aggression towards the other group, with females being as aggressive as the male. Both sexes were targets of aggression. Males of both groups directed more friendly behavior towards the members of the other group than did females. Mainly the male of the respective other group was target of friendly behavior. During intergroup encounters, males showed herding behavior towards their own females, as reflected by increased aggression and mounting rates compared to control situations. The results of this study suggest that a mixture of resource and mate defense strategies and infanticide avoidance influence intergroup encounters in lion-tailed macaques.
All male group in captive lion-tailed macaques.
Stahl, D., Herman, F. and Kaumanns, W.
ABSTRACT: We examined the social relationships in a newly established all-male group of lion-tailed macaques during the first 9 weeks. The group formation was initiated and organised by the European Breeding Program in order to find appropriate keeping conditions for surplus males. The group formation was used as an opportunity to analyse the social behaviour with respect to the compatibility of the males. We discuss whether male lion-tailed macaques have the potential to form stable relationships with sociopositive components with each other in captive all-male groups so that it is possible to keep lion-tailed macaques males in groups as an alternative to single housing.